The melanoma is not only the most malignant skin tumor but also one of the most malignant cancers in general.
It is paramount to recognize the early signs of melanoma because there are enough potential to be curable with limited surgery. If melanoma penetrate deep into the skin and reach the lymphatics and blood vessels located in the second layer of skin (dermis). Usually it is impossible to heal itself, although the surgery can achieve long disease-free survival.
Great importance is the monitoring of high-risk patients from a dermatologist and visit patients exhibit a change in pre-existing nevus.
Causes Melanoma creation
The intense and occasional exposure to intense solar radiation that causes burns than tan.
Heredity is a causative agent and precipitating, as in dysplastic nevus syndrome, individuals with light-colored skin type I and II exhibit enhanced growth potential sunburn.
Predisposing factors may be chronic irritation nevi and immunosuppression.
During pregnancy as it can make rapid disease progression
The taking oral contraceptives, most of which contain progestin agents, it has also been associated with increased incidence of melanoma growth surface.
Moreover, malignant melanoma can be derived from malignant transformation lentil, congenital nevi, n and acquired melanocytic nevi.
How is the diagnosis of melanoma.
With simple clinical examination (review)
With dermoscopy, namely examination by a special lens that “illuminates” the microscopic details of moles.
Using digital photography and analysis by the computer. This method is applied to our clinic with special equipment (MOLEMAX), which allows shooting of moles in a given time and comparing these images in future examination of the patient to detect possible changes in these nevi.
Especially for the diagnosis of melanoma is the ABCD rule mnimotechnikos. From the initials of the words Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and referred to warts.
How melanoma treatment
Modern treatment of melanoma is surgical removal.
For other cancers of the skin, can be applied for other types of treatment, in addition to surgery, such as radiation, laser, cryopexy, photodynamic treatment and administration anosotropoiiton and cytostatics, and is personalized for each case. Usually the surgical melanoma approximation is performed in two phases.
First the fault is removed, histological examination and, after the malignancy is confirmed, it is the additional removal for better cleaning of the area.
If the histological examination shows increased melanoma skin penetration (increased “thickness”), then go to multiple sites lymph node biopsy “sentinel” in order to examine whether the adjacent nodes are affected.
If there is interference nodes is made total removal (dissection), and the patient is put in the prophylactic therapy or immunological agents combined immunotherapy and chemotherapy.
With early diagnosis is very high probability of treatment of slowly evolving non-melanoma skin cancers. Although non-melanotic skin cancers rarely give metastases, doctors advise patients frequently visit their dermatologist to be checked for any changes in their skin. Non-melanoma skin cancers are divided into three different types:
Actinic keratosis (Aktinic Keratoses),
Vasikokyttarikos Cancer (Basal Cell Carcinoma),
Akanthokyttarikos Cancer (Squamous Cell Carcinoma).